Nutritional risk analysis approaches for establishing maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in food (dietary) supplements
Risk analysis for nutrients differs from that for other substances in foods because vitamins and minerals are essential for life, and consequently adverse effects can result from suboptimal intakes and deficiencies as well as from excessive intakes. The key challenge for risk managers is to balance the risk of deficiency in some individuals with risk of overconsumption in others in the same population. This report explains why RDA-based upper safe levels are not scientific or appropriate to establish maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in food supplements. It sets out the three distinct, but closely related, components of nutritional risk analysis as described by Codex and FAO/WHO, namely nutritional risk assessment, nutritional risk management and nutritional risk communication.